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Iowa Lakes References
Book Reference

Storm Lake (incl Little Storm Lake), Buena Vista County

Andersen, K. L. (2000). Historical alterations of surface hydrology in Iowa's small agricultural watersheds.
Iowa's headwater prairie streams, once meandering within a landscape of tall grasses, marshes and wooded riparian borders, today exist in direct contact with an agricultural matrix. This study determined historic changes in surface water features of four small agricultural watersheds. Bear Creek watershed was once part of the "wet prairie" region located in the Des Moines Lobe landform of north-central Iowa. Storm Lake watershed, located in the Northwest Iowa Loess Prairies landform, was of a similar original condition with limited stream channel development. The Walnut Creek and Three Mile Creek watersheds are located in the Southern Iowa Rolling Loess Prairies landform, a more erosionally-mature region. Historical information about natural surface hydrology features of the four watersheds were obtained from General Land Office survey records of the mid-1800's, original drainage districts maps from the early 1900's, county atlases and other historical sources. These data were integrated into a Geographical Information System and compared with modern features depicted on USGS topographical maps. Study results for the northern watersheds showed that nearly all of the original wetland features have been eliminated since settlement and replaced by streams largely of artificial origin. This historical acceleration of stream development includes dramatic increases in channel lengths and incision. In contrast, the southern watersheds have had many natural stream segments altered or eliminated by channelization and construction of impoundments (farm ponds). These findings are useful for establishing "reference conditions" of prairie hydrologic features and documenting historical effects of agricultural activity.

Qin, H. (1999). Runoff collection and storage design and optimization for a stormwater reuse system.
A study was conducted to provide design and economic information on storm water collection and storage. An optimization model was developed for a 809-acre watershed located in Easter Lake watershed, Des Moines, IA. The SCS Curve Number Method and Runoff Coefficient Method were used to predict storm water runoff following development. Special water quality classifications were defined for the use of treated storm water. Design and cost data were developed parametrically for collection and storage as inputs to the system analysis model. The system analysis model was used to select the optimal combination of collection area and reuse option based on the maximum benefit to cost ratio.
The optimal and practical solution was determined considering the constrains on land use imposed by the existing development plans. As a result of the work, it was determined that reuse of non-potable water for irrigation, and toilet flushing are not economically feasible. The efficiency of the reuse pond for the above uses is low because of the large amount of runoff being discharged instead of being reused. It is found that the application of a large storage pond and a treatment plant to serve the whole watershed is more economic than the application of several small local storage ponds and treatment plants. It is also found that the use of a storm water pond for aesthetic, recreational and flood control purpose would be an economically attractive and feasible option.

Gano, J. A. (1995). Groundwater quality around Storm Lake, Iowa.

Sours, J. K. (1994). Lake study : Storm Lake analysis and hypsometric curve analysis.

Rieke Carroll Muller Associates. and Storm Lake (Iowa) (1976). Summary report of water pollution control facilities planning for Storm Lake, Iowa, Rieke Carroll Muller Associates.

University of Iowa. State Hygienic Laboratory., University of Iowa. State Hygienic Laboratory. Limnology Division., et al. (1972). Investigation of the North Raccoon River fish kill below Storm Lake, Iowa, April 9-11, 1972, The Laboratory.

University of Iowa. State Hygienic Laboratory. and Iowa. Water Pollution Control Commission. (1972). Winter water quality of the North Raccoon River from Storm Lake to Van Meter, Iowa, The Laboratory.

Gakstatter, J. H., W. R. Shobe, et al. (1971). Winter water quality of the North Raccoon River from Storm Lake to Van Meter, Iowa, The Laboratory.

Swenson, J. L. (1966). Occupational survey of Storm Lake, Iowa, with implications for vocational education.

Journal Reference

Storm Lake (incl Little Storm Lake), Buena Vista County


Record 3 of 11 in AGRIS 1989 - 1990
TI: Role of water activity in the spoilage of alfalfa hay.
AU: Albert,-R.A.; Huebner,-B.; Davis,-L.W.
SO: Journal-of-dairy-science (USA). (Oct 1989). v. 72(10) p. 2573-2581. .
LA: En (English)
IS: ISSN 0022-0302.
AN: 90-048102

Record 6 of 11 in Biological Abstracts 1990 Part 1
SO: Journal-of-Dairy-Science. 1989; 72 (10): 2573-2581..
IS: 0022-0302
AB: Moisture sorption isotherms of alfalfa stems and leaves obtained from the first and third cutting of the season were constructed. Important differences in the relationship between moisture content and water activity values for alfalfa stems and leaves were observed. The extent of those differences was influenced by the initial moisture content and maturity of the alfalfa plant. Water activity, not moisture content, determined the nature of fungal growth on alfalfa stems and leaves. At water activity of 1.0 (moisture content, 51.7 to 65.3%), fungal growth was characterized by extensive mycelial development. Reducing the water activity to .93 (moisture content, 28.1 to 41.7%) dramatically increased fungal fruiting body development and reduced mycelial development. Even though alfalfa stems are nutritionally inferior to alfalfa leaves, fungal fruiting bodies appeared sooner on the stems at water activity values less than .81. Addition of a rich nutrient source, yeast extract, to the stems and leaves did not change that relationship. Anlaysis of the experimental results reported showed that alfalfa stems have a greater spoilage potential than alfalfa leaves. Implications of these findings to the spoilage process and the nutritional quality of baled alfalfa hay are discussed.
AN: 199089044684

Record 7 of 11 in Biological Abstracts 1987-1988
SO: Proceedings-of-the-Iowa-Academy-of-Science. 1987; 94 (3): 94-104..
IS: 0085-2236
AB: With increased consumption of fossil fuels has come warnings that the global atmosphere could be overtaxed with carbon dioxide and other combustion byproducts. The most popular scenario suggests a warming of the subpolar area with an extension of the grain belt. This warming could place the present grain belt in a warmer and drier climate. Each time a portion of the grain belt experiences a temperature or precipitation anomaly, the suggestion of a climate change is raised. The present paper addresses the question of medium-term, 95-year change in Iowa annual precipitation as well as linkage between precipitation and temperature anomalies. Similar studies in Europe and the United Kingdom, where unbroken precipitation records extend back almost 300 years, show periods up to 50 or 75 years where a jump in the annual mean has occurred. The fact that such anomalies extend back before the industrial revolution suggests other factors may cause such changes. With only about 100 years of climatological records here in the grain belt, it may not be possible to identify long-term, natural oscillations or a true, long-term trend. Records at four sites, Cedar Rapids, Des Moines, Dubuque, and Storm Lake, were analyzed in search of true jumps or trends in the climatic record. There was no question that the record had dry and wet periods, some extending over a period of ten or fifteen years. The conclusions were that, although extended periods seemed to be above or below the long-term mean, these anomalies had tenuous linkages between sites across the state. Possibly because of the sample size, no statistically significant trends were observed between sites through the years 1890-1984. Several poorly defined single site jumps were observed in the precipitation record, however, these were not clearly linked companion temperature perturbations.
AN: 198885025339


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